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One often hears and reads assertions of our superiority in ideology, as if that counted in place of performance. On the other hand one sometimes hears it said in extenuation of deficiencies in our real political life that, after all, Pakistan as a state is not yet even ten years old. On hearing this excuse I usually point out that the circumstances of world politics permit no people to claim such exemptions from responsibility as might be appropriate to a child.
A nation can earn the respect due to maturity by itself acting maturely.
Officially a federal republic , Pakistan has had a long history of alternating periods of electoral democracy and authoritarian military government. However, a majority of Pakistan's Heads of State and Heads of Government have been elected civilian leaders. General elections were held in October After monitoring the elections, the Commonwealth Observer Group stated in conclusion:. On May 22, , the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group re-admitted Pakistan into the Commonwealth , formally acknowledging its progress in returning to democracy.
Azad Kashmir has its own constitution, the Azad Jammu and Kashmir Interim Constitution Act of , and a locally chosen parliamentary form of government, as described above. The constitution allows for many of the structures that comprise a self-governing state, including a legislative assembly elected through periodic elections, a prime minister who commands the majority in the assembly, an indirectly elected president, an independent judiciary, and local government institutions. But these provisions are hollow.
Current Political and Social Problems of Pakistan
The latter body, presided over by the Prime Minister of Pakistan , exercises paramount authority over the AJK Legislative Assembly , which cannot challenge decisions of the council. The council is under the numerical control of the federal government in Islamabad, as in addition to the Pakistani prime minister it comprises six other federal ministers, the minister of Kashmir affairs as the ex-officio member, the prime minister of Azad Kashmir, and six Azad Kashmir members elected by the Legislative Assembly. Its decisions are final and not subject to judicial review. Thus, Azad Kashmir remains for all intents and purposes under Pakistan's strict control, exercising no real sovereignty of its own.
From the outset, the institutional set up in the territory was designed to ensure Pakistan's control of the area's affairs. Pakistan is subdivided into 4 provinces, 2 territories, and 1 capital territory. Each province has a Provincial Assembly, a directly elected legislature. Members are elected for five-year terms.
The Current Situation in Pakistan
Each Assembly elects a Chief Minister, who then selects the ministers of his or her cabinet. Pakistan's provinces are divided into districts called zillas in local languages counterpart to a county in US or UK terminology. A zilla is further subdivided into tehsils roughly equivalent to a borough in an integrated multi-tier federated systemic context, such as the one to be found in Montreal Canada, and Birmingham UK, announcement or known as arrondissements in French context.
Tehsils may contain town or municipalities.
Pakistan's system is the one that applies an integrated federated systemic framework most comprehensively, so far. This methodology is not new to the region, as it is similar to what is referred to as the old Panchayat Raj system in India that was introduced by Britain during the colonial era. In the s Britain had become the first nation to adapt the two-tier administrative framework of revolutionary Paris onto pre-existing parish councils in the urban context London and into three tiers in the rural context county, district, parish councils.
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In India it was implemented in some regions and not others; and then allowed to lie fallow. It got new life after the very successful West Bengal revival in the s, which eventually inspired the s Constitutional Amendment making it national policy. The main difference is that Pakistan is the only country with an urban framework, as well, in the region today; and Pakistan's system has common-representational framework between tiers as Montreal and Birmingham also have in two-tier context—even though Birmingham is working on implementing a three-tier system ; and, it has a bottom-up representational framework like the Canadian example.
Pakistan had the only three-tier integrated bottom-up common-representational local government system, until it was adapted for another country in UK, the country which first introduced this methodology in the region, also has the urban examples of London and Birmingham being implemented in the post era by building on steps first introduced in the s ; as does France where largest cities and smaller units have created such frameworks either by devolution Marseilles and Lyon, in addition to Paris or by integration of neighbouring units such as the Nantes region pursuant to the Marcellin Act of the s ; and Canada.
This methodology is being increasingly adapted, as it delivers greater systemic productivity, being a more inclusive framework that provides greater regional integration. Multi-county frameworks are suitable for a very suburbanized system like in the US. After France and Britain, the Indian colony of Britain was the third region to see this methodology implemented. There are over five thousand local governments in Pakistan.
Since , the vast majority of these have been led by democratically elected local councils, each headed by a Nazim mayor or supervisor. Council elections are held every four years.
Democracy Succeed In Pakistan Politics Essay
Pakistan is the second largest Muslim country in terms of population, and its status as a declared nuclear power , being the only Muslim nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role. It is also an active member of the United Nations. Historically, its foreign policy has encompassed difficult relations with India , a desire for a stable Afghanistan , long-standing close relations with the People's Republic of China , extensive security and economic interests in the Persian Gulf and wide-ranging bilateral relations with the United States and other Western countries.
Pakistan has used the OIC as a forum for Enlightened Moderation ,  its plan to promote a renaissance and enlightenment in the Islamic world. Its alliance with the United States was especially close after the Soviets invaded the neighbouring country of Afghanistan. To this day, Pakistan has a close relationship with Turkey. Pakistan's relations with India have improved recently and this has opened up Pakistan's foreign policy to issues beyond security.
This development might completely change the complexion of Pakistan's foreign relations. Pakistan joined Non-Aligned Movement in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. June Previous constitutions: General: Administrative units. Foreign relations. Other countries Atlas. See also: Government of Pakistan. Main article: Foreign relations of Pakistan.
Pakistan portal. Parliament of Pakistan press. Retrieved 3 March The intended objective by releasing such videos was to achieve a positive domestic and international public opinion of the armed forces and based on various social media posts that objective seems to have been achieved. Although there was no direct appreciation of the Pakistani army for looking after the pilot, based on a cursory mining of social media posts, there was minimal disapproval from across the border of the Pakistani armed forces with regard to how the pilot was treated.
However, there were many opinions stating that the videos violated the Geneva Convention.
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On the other side of the border, these videos were used by the Indian media to establish the pilot as a heroic character. The pilot, in a video, gave very minimal information to protect national security; no details of the mission he was on, the jet he was flying, and other sensitive information seemed to have been given away in the video.
He was exalted by Indian media as the perfect soldier who survived and behaved in a dignified and composed manner in enemy territory.
Based on the content published by news media around the return of the pilot, one can conclude that public imagination was strengthened by the media framing. The construction of such a public imagination has been performed by various other mass media tools such as movies, songs, and stories of martyrs and heroes, long before the present India-Pakistan conflict.
Positive public opinion of the Indian and Pakistani armed forces, displaying the heroism of a soldier, framing news in a manner that holds one national leader responsible for displaying a brave offensive against terror and praising another for exhibiting a calm and smart approach to peace, lead to the strengthening of a sense of patriotism, trust in leadership, and national identity and pride. This building of national identity is one of the processes toward promoting a strong nationalistic polity. Public opinion in India for stern action against terrorism has been growing stronger over the past few years.
The unprecedented display of air power against terror has appealed to people based on the various reactions one can observe in mass media and social media. This general appeal to popular public opinion is a textbook example for populism in action.
This move, for a populist, nationalist leader such as Narendra Modi will enhance his campaign for the general elections that he is contesting in a couple of months. Prime Minister Imran Khan has been in office for a little over half a year. He was seen as a political novice after a major victory for his party last year.