Abdulallyi Esoofally, for example, travelled through the Far East including Burma, Ceylon, Singapore and Indonesia with a tent bioscope, introducing film to these regions. Not only was film a way to exercise a nostalgia for the homeland but it also helped these communities keep in touch with the changing ethos and values of their motherland in a developing world.
The ability of the media to act as the bridge between India and those abroad has been maintained throughout the twentieth century. The arrival of the audio cassette in India made film through music as an extension of the film itself more accessible to Indians at home and abroad.
Today, international media like the Internet take Bollywood globally. This global accessibility has now transcended Indian diasporic audiences, with the Bollywood song and dance tradition reaching a universal audience. Just as the song and dance sequences appealed to those living in India who could not speak Hindi, the same principle provides an insight as to why Bollywood is, and will continue to be, so well received internationally.
Neighbourhood of Mumbai in Maharashtra, India. Neighbourhood of Mumbai. Retrieved 6 September Hindustan Times. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 March Tourist attractions in Mumbai list. In the early s, there was a growing interest within anthropology about media and popular culture, so I was in the right place at the right time. The example of the Hindi film industry counters all of those theories trotted about by neoliberal economists and Republican politicians in the U.
The second feature that I also find unique is that Hindi films have circulated all across the world since the s — Morocco, Egypt, Nigeria, Ghana, Israel, Tanzania, Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria, Poland, Indonesia, Soviet Union, Peru, China, and many more countries without any significant diasporic community — without any marketing effort on the part of their producers. These films circulated far and wide and cultivated loyal audiences and the producers sitting in Bombay had no idea.
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In that sense, these films have managed to reach all sorts of unexpected and unanticipated audiences on their own strength with zero promotion or marketing. I often found myself telling filmmakers in Bombay stories about where all their films had reached and they were quite surprised!
Tejaswini: They are both similar in that they are both large, commercially oriented, profit-seeking, globally circulating mainstream entertainment industries. In contrast to Hollywood, the Hindi film industry is highly decentralized, has been financed primarily by entrepreneurial capital, organized along social and kin networks, and until the early s was governed by oral rather than written contracts.
It has been and continues to be an industry of free-lancers who come together for a particular film project. Finally, a very important difference between the two industries is that Hollywood has always had the support of the US government, since the early 20th century, to help its goals of expansion, unlike the Hindi industry, which first took shape under a colonial power. The British were trying to figure out how to promote their own films in India and had no interest in fostering Indian filmmaking; after Independence, the Indian government treated films akin to a vice in terms of its censorship and taxation policies.
MBA Crystal Ball: Gazing into your crystal ball, what key developments do you see in the next few years? Tejaswini: Actually when it comes to media generally, and the Hindi film industry specifically, it is very hard to predict trends.
When I first began my research, most filmmakers were absolutely certain that the Central government would never grant industry status to filmmaking, and yet two years later, it did. However, if I have to predict, I would say that the increasing integration between the production, distribution, and exhibition sectors that I mentioned above will continue.
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However, even with large companies like Reliance Big Entertainment and UTV, it appears that the independent producer and distributor are still required to carry out the actual work of producing and distributing films. Tejaswini: There are a number that touch on a variety of issues ranging from marketing to data collection. Secondly, within India, I believe that filmmakers should not be content with making all of their money from a small segment of the audience, which is what the advent of multiplexes with their exorbitant ticket rates have done to the film business. The industry should be trying to grow its audience, not shrink it.
Thirdly, the industry is witnessing large infusions of capital through the entry of the corporate sector into filmmaking, but much of that capital is chasing the same stars rather than trying to cultivate new talent. Finally, a consequence of the decentralized nature of the industry is that there is a real problem in terms of collecting reliable data about revenues — no one ever really knows how much money a film has made and success and failure are all relative to which position you occupy on the chain. MBA Crystal Ball: In terms of market reach, do you see the Indian film industry gaining a wider acceptibility beyond the Indian diaspora?
Would language, culture and a highly typical desi flavour act as deterrents in the process?
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Tejaswini: I already believe that Indian films have a global audience — neither language, culture, or songs have posed a problem in the past, but the challenge for filmmakers has always been to realize those profits. It was not the content, but a series of historical factors that have led to its global dominance from the devastating impact of World War 2 on the European film industries to the U. The U. As I had mentioned, the U. Tejaswini: The Indian government needs to have a better long-term vision about how it wants to promote filmmaking in the global market.
There should be better subtitling for markets where subtitling is more preferable and the songs definitely need to be subtitled and subtitled better! If Hindi films in the past managed to reach so many audiences without any effort on the part of their makers, imagine what actually trying can do? What topics have you covered so far.
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Tejaswini: My first book, Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema , Routledge which will be coming out in its 2nd edition later this year, explains the cultural, social, and political significance of Hindi cinema, outlines the history and structure of the Bombay film industry, and details the development of popular Hindi filmmaking since the s. I was motivated to write this book because in the course of teaching a class on Indian cinema, I became aware of the need for a monograph that introduced the history, context, and form of Hindi cinema as well as the film industry and its production practices.
My second book, Producing Bollywood: Inside the Contemporary Hindi Film Industry , which has just been published by Duke University Press, explores the transformations in the Hindi film industry from , a period in which economic liberalization dramatically altered the media landscape in India — first with the advent of satellite television and then multiplex theaters. Despite odds, the film industry has been constantly growing.
vrra.swanndvr.net/158.php The budgets, the scale of operations and the skillsets needed are constantly expanding. And a booming industry needs skilled manpower to sustain that growth. If you have been fascinated by the industry, it can offer many career opportunities for those with solid business skills to take it to the next level. Nice article…. Can you please throw some light on the career opportunities in this industry? How can someone who is passionate about this industry make a career in this arena?
Sailesh, There are basically 2 career paths in media including movies, music, TV — one in the creative side and the other in business roles. If you are planning for an MBA the reason you are on this site? In that case, the regular functions like marketing, finance, accounting, human resources, operations, and to an extent strategy are all open. So if you have an exposure in these areas, the cross-industry transition becomes just a little easier.
However you still need to have an understanding of the industry, various roles and have contacts last one is the most important one. I am a creative person since childhood but due to lack of awareness at early age I did not enter into film industry. I am working in the IT industry but want to switch to film industry.
I love talking about business so, I am planning to go for an MBA. What careers are open to me? Also can you suggest me some online or other resources where I can find more information.